CELTS IN MORAVIA
Celtic history of Moravian Region
The Celts are the oldest evidence of ethnic groups north of the Alps. Crystallizing the center of this population was the territory of southwest Bohemia, Bavaria, eastern France and adjacent parts of Switzerland. From starting the 5th century BC. N. L. Colonized in several waves throughout Western and Central Europe. They are the first known ethnic group, which has seriously affected the fate of our country, which occupied the most fertile part of the land. Bohemia inhabited tribe Boii, Moravia then Volks-Tektosags. The first wave hit the influx of Celts in Moravia as early as the 5th century, the second in the first half of the fourth century. For the second wave of Celts are characterized by flat necropolis, which Moravia register at 250. And it is practiced habits of the burial rite we uncover the veil of their spiritual world. On the equipment graves is obvious stratification of society. Besides the graves of warriors in full armor, we uncover graves only with standard equipment, but also the graves quite poor with little charity or completely without them. Burying their dead in a stretched supine position, with hands along body, head to the north. Unlike previous Hallstatt Period graves were covered mounds, thus marking a flat necropolis. Over time, however, prevailed over the skeletal burials burning of the deceased and cremation became for a time the only form of burial rite. But from the late La Tene (the course of the 1st century BC. N. L.) know funerals at all, from all occupied by the Celts of central Europe. This is undoubtedly related to their ideas, which result there was a simplification of the burial rite. With religion and cult undoubtedly related small metal sculptures, finding housing estates in fairly large quantities. They depict various animals (wild boar, dog, goat, deer, as well as birds), and exceptionally even human figures. Celtic pantheon of gods numbered over 400. The most famous Taranis – the god of heaven and thunder, Teutates – god strain (warriors protect and ensure the well-being), Lug – god of trade and handicrafts, Epona – the goddess of water. They worshiped their gods in sacred places – in forests, at the sources of the waterways, with wells and caves where they have brought an incredibly rich offerings, not excluding articles of gold and silver. Mediator between the world of humans and gods were priests – Druids. In Caesar’s “Notes on the Gallic War”, it is stated that in Gaul (in the land of the Celts) are the only two states that mean something; Riders (distinguished warriors), and Druids. Role of the Druids was much broader. Besides the necessary rituals carried out astronomical observations were guardians of tradition and law.
The intensity of Celtic settlement suggested by the fact that, for example, only Prostejov we register 150 settlements agrarian character. This number is certainly not complete. The most important site Prostejov region can be considered, in addition to the settlement, Stare Hradisko, non fortified settlement covering an area of 35 ha in Nemcice na Hane, whose heyday falls at the turn of the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. Predominantly surface findings (extensive archaeological research has been done on the site) it is supported by a local metal casting smelter at casting bronze objects, minting of the first Celtic coins (from the settlement now monitors more than 1,000 pieces of various denominations) and documented the oldest glass factory in Europe to produce glass beads and probably bracelets. It found there were 2,000 glasses, of which 500 fragments of bracelets which is the second largest population, after the Bavarian oppidum in Manching. The biggest surprise is an extensive collection of imported coins coming from all over the ancient world. Represented are minting from Greece, Rome, Carthage, Egypt, Sicily, Messalie. They are evidence of long distance trade and nimble all contacts with the then-known world. Celtic manufacturing and trading center in Nemcice na Hane is located in a strategic location in the center of Moravia, surrounded by fertile plains Hane near the historic road called Amber Road, and at points of entry to the Moravian Gate. Contacts with the territory of today’s Slovenia, Italy and the Carpathian basin is different from the Stare Hradisko, oriented west Boii area. With the end of the settlement in Nemcice (in the second half of the second century BC.), The power and business center shifts to the Stare Hradisko, which starts to work right from the middle of the 2nd century BC., And its end comes after more than 100 years, to the end of the old era. Also, at this point we have a wealth of findings demonstrated an intense amber processing and is therefore not tomž doubt that even Settlement of Stare Hradisko benefited commodity Amber Route.
The cultural level of life of Celts reflects the high level of aesthetic feeling and is evident not only from the jewelry and opulent objects in general, but of everyday objects. The original geometric style of the late Hallstatt to which the aesthetic expression of the Celts followed, under the influence of Greek and Etruscan transformed into original and unmistakable expression, using ornamental and from the 3rd century, particularly plastic components, including an as zoomorphic and anthropomorphic patterns.
The Celts were unable to create their own state and successfully face the pressure of the Romans and the Germans. Around the turn of the era, their power in central Europe broke a considerable part of them returned to the place of the original settlement.
Significant sites of Central Moravia
Thoroughly introduced Nemcice na Hane, thanks to new findings made a key location with tremendous potential information from all areas of the world of the Celts. Long before them, people’s attention attracted a wide area of the Stare Hradisko findings, which are due to archaeological research in the first decade of the 20th century proved to be the first Moravian Celtic oppidum. The place has been known since the Middle Ages, and the findings already mentioned amber. The first mention of “mirrze” (amber) comes from provincial boards from 1519 to 1522 in the chronicle of bishop of Olomouc Dubravius. As mirrhy site is also marked on the map J.A. Comenius 1627. The Stare Hradisko took place in the 30s of the 20th century, at the behest of J. Bohm from the Archaeological Institute in Prague, the first face-conceived archaeological research in the territory of Czechoslovakia, which continued in the 60th to 90th years, J. Meduna and M. Čižmář of the Archaeological Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy in Brno. Excavations yielded important insights into the structure of buildings, fortifications and level of craftsmanship, including evidence of contact with the Mediterranean. Amber processing was one of the major specializations of local artisans. Stare Hradisko at Prostejov is not the only place oppidium character. They also include Caves and probably reel in Stramberk, ruined, unfortunately, stone mining.
With the first wave of invading Celts linked the monumental fort Cernov na Vyskovsku, built on the southern edge Drahany highlands. Findings site ranks among the oldest of Celtic settlement in Moravia. Fort with an area of 2.3 hectares along the perimeter was surrounded by a massive stone wall.
Brno-Malomerice necropolis – the largest and also systematically explored Celtic burial site in Moravia. In 1941 there Poulík J. explored 76 graves and another 10 were registered at various finders.
Depot of Pteni. In 1868, the extraction of wood near the village Pteni (today’s municipal borders Hrochov) found loggers hoard of bronze objects, complete with glass and amber beads. Composition depot shows contacts with today’s Slovenia and Italy.
Luderov, district Olomouc – Celtic “Vierecksachanze”. Germany name for the typical landscaping department, surrounded by ramparts and a moat. The idea that they are shrines with hugs wells recedes opinion, it is a fortified residential villages. In this case it is a completely unique Celtic heritage.
Domamyslice – The tomb of the warrior bounded by a moat. Tomb of a warrior in full armor, undoubtedly important personalities, explored in 1970 by M. Čižmář, former archaeologist Prostejov Museum. Grave bordered square moat (base trough over square lattices) contained a complete set of a warrior buried with his sword, spear, shield, iron belt and indispensable components of clothing.
Author: Miroslav Šmíd
Information and Literature:
Čižmářová, J. 2001: Celts in Moravia. Guide to the exhibition at the Provincial Museum.
Čižmář, M. 2006: Lathen Age. In .: Čižmář, M. – Geislerová, K. (eds.) Research – Ausgrabungen 1999 – 2004. Brno, 55-61.
The exhibition “The Amber Road” – Museum and Gallery Prostejov, 7. 4. – 5. 6. 2016 screenplay writer Hana Čižmářová.
FESTIVAL CELTIC NIGHT
International Music Festival Celtic Night – Keltská noc is a two-day genre targeted festival of traditional Celtic culture, representing the best of Czech and world Celtic music scene. The Festival, held every year in the Czech Republic, Plumlov, camp Zralok, including rich accompanying programme, such as the Scottish Regiment combat demonstrations, Celtic blacksmith, Celtic bread baking demonstration, Celtic witch, demonstration of the traditional life of the Celts and Celtic crafts, teaching Irish dancing, midnight fire show, etc. On the stage of festival Celtic Night in an unbroken series of fifteen years, was introduced more than two hundred artists from Europe and overseas, such as the Irish Sliotar from Dublin, Los Paddys de la Pampas, Austrian Celtica Pipes Rock, Paddy Murphy, Irish Rose from Slovakia, Hungarian Selfish Murphy, Bran, Poitín, Gwalarn, Tomáš Kočko and Orchestr, České srdce and many others.
Celtic Night is a high-quality cultural event that well represents the Moravian region and its Celtic cultural traditions, the event which attracts more and more people, not only from Czech Republic, but also from abroad. The organizers are proud that International Music Festival Celtic Night with its unmistakable atmosphere is clearly portrayed as one of the best festivals of the genre throughout our country and already has its firm place on the cultural map of the Czech Republic and Europe. Long live to the festival Celtic Night in the Moravian Plumlov! We are looking forward to your visit at this year’s festival, Celtic Night.